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RESPIRABLE CRYSTALLINE SILICA

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Sebastian Taylor
Sebastian Taylor

Fuels and Combustion by Samir Sarkar: An Essential Textbook for Engineering Students and Professionals


- Why is it relevant and useful for engineering students and professionals? - How to get the epub version of the book? H2: Energy resources and processing of fuels - What are the different types of energy resources and how are they classified? - What are the advantages and disadvantages of each energy resource? - What are the main processes involved in converting raw fuels into usable forms? H2: Fundamentals of combustion - What is combustion and what are the essential requirements for it? - What are the different modes and stages of combustion? - What are the main parameters and characteristics of combustion? H2: Combustion appliances - What are the different types of combustion appliances and how do they work? - What are the design considerations and performance criteria for combustion appliances? - What are the common problems and challenges faced by combustion appliances? H2: Fuels and combustion in Indian context - What are the specific features and issues of fuels and combustion in India? - How does India compare with other countries in terms of energy consumption and production? - What are the current and future trends and prospects of fuels and combustion in India? H1: Conclusion - Summarize the main points and findings of the article. - Highlight the benefits and challenges of fuels and combustion. - Provide some recommendations and suggestions for further reading. # Article with HTML formatting Introduction




Fuels and Combustion is a systematic and comprehensive work on a subject that forms an integral part of the undergraduate degree courses in chemical, mechanical, metallurgical, and aeronautical engineering. The book covers various aspects of energy resources, processing of fuels, fundamentals of combustion, and combustion appliances. The book also deals with the topics in an Indian context, providing relevant data and information on the energy scenario in India.




SamirSarkarFuelsAndCombustionepub



The author of the book is Samir Sarkar, who is a retired professor of chemical engineering from IIT Bombay. He has published several technical papers in the areas of coal and petroleum with emphasis on carbonization, hydrogenation, and gasification. He has also written another book on Petroleum Refining Processes.


The book is relevant and useful for engineering students and professionals who want to learn about the principles and applications of fuels and combustion. The book provides a balanced treatment of theory and practice, with numerous examples, problems, tables, figures, and references. The book also helps to develop analytical skills and problem-solving abilities in the field of fuels and combustion.


The epub version of the book is available from various online platforms such as Google Books, Rakuten Kobo, Amazon Kindle, etc. The epub format is convenient and flexible for reading on different devices such as laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. The epub version also allows for easy navigation, bookmarking, highlighting, annotation, etc.


Energy resources and processing of fuels




Energy resources are the sources of energy that can be used to produce heat, power, or work. Energy resources can be classified into two main categories: renewable and non-renewable.


Renewable energy resources are those that can be replenished or regenerated naturally within a short period of time. Examples of renewable energy resources are solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy, etc. Renewable energy resources have several advantages such as being clean, abundant, sustainable, diverse, etc. However, they also have some disadvantages such as being intermittent, variable, dependent on weather conditions, location-specific, etc.


Non-renewable energy resources are those that cannot be replenished or regenerated naturally within a human time scale. Examples of non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), nuclear fuels (uranium), etc. Non-renewable energy resources have several advantages such as being reliable, consistent, high-density, easy to transport, etc. However, they also have some disadvantages such as being finite, depletable, polluting, expensive, etc.


The processing of fuels is the conversion of raw fuels into usable forms that can be utilized for various purposes. The processing of fuels involves various steps such as extraction, transportation, storage, refining, upgrading, blending, etc. The processing of fuels aims to improve the quality, quantity, and efficiency of the fuels. The processing of fuels also helps to reduce the environmental impact of the fuels.


Fundamentals of combustion




Combustion is the rapid chemical reaction of a fuel with an oxidizer (usually air) that produces heat and light. Combustion is also known as burning or oxidation.


The essential requirements for combustion are fuel, oxidizer, and ignition. Fuel is the substance that undergoes combustion and provides energy. Oxidizer is the substance that supplies oxygen for the combustion reaction. Ignition is the source of heat or spark that initiates the combustion reaction.


The different modes of combustion are premixed and non-premixed. Premixed combustion is when the fuel and oxidizer are mixed before entering the combustion zone. Non-premixed combustion is when the fuel and oxidizer are not mixed before entering the combustion zone.


The different stages of combustion are ignition, flame propagation, and extinction. Ignition is the initiation of the combustion reaction by an external source. Flame propagation is the spread of the combustion reaction through the fuel-oxidizer mixture. Extinction is the termination of the combustion reaction due to insufficient fuel, oxidizer, or heat.


The main parameters and characteristics of combustion are temperature, pressure, velocity, heat release rate, flame speed, flame temperature, flame shape, flame stability, etc. These parameters and characteristics affect the performance and efficiency of the combustion process.


Combustion appliances




Combustion appliances are devices that use combustion to produce heat or power for various purposes. Combustion appliances can be classified into two main categories: domestic and industrial.


Domestic combustion appliances are those that are used for household purposes such as cooking, heating, lighting, etc. Examples of domestic combustion appliances are stoves, ovens, furnaces, fireplaces, water heaters, lamps, etc. Domestic combustion appliances have several advantages such as being convenient, affordable, accessible, etc. However, they also have some disadvantages such as being inefficient, unsafe, polluting, etc.


Industrial combustion appliances are those that are used for industrial purposes such as power generation, transportation, manufacturing, etc. Examples of industrial combustion appliances are boilers, turbines, engines, furnaces, kilns, etc. Industrial combustion appliances have several advantages such as being powerful, efficient, versatile, etc. However, they also have some disadvantages such as being complex, costly, maintenance-intensive, etc.


Combustion appliances design and performance




The design considerations and performance criteria for combustion appliances depend on various factors such as type of fuel, type of oxidizer, type of ignition, type of mode and stage of combustion, type of application, etc. The design considerations and performance criteria for combustion appliances aim to achieve the following objectives:


  • Maximize the efficiency and output of the combustion process.



  • Minimize the emissions and environmental impact of the combustion process.



  • Ensure the safety and reliability of the combustion process.



  • Optimize the cost and maintenance of the combustion process.



The efficiency of a combustion appliance is the ratio of the useful energy output to the energy input. The efficiency depends on factors such as fuel quality, fuel-air ratio, combustion temperature, heat transfer, heat losses, etc. The efficiency can be improved by using high-quality fuels, optimizing fuel-air ratio, increasing combustion temperature, enhancing heat transfer, reducing heat losses, etc.


The emissions of a combustion appliance are the pollutants that are released into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion process. The emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc. The emissions depend on factors such as fuel composition, fuel-air ratio, combustion temperature, combustion mode, flue gas treatment, etc. The emissions can be reduced by using low-sulfur fuels, optimizing fuel-air ratio, lowering combustion temperature, using premixed or staged combustion modes, installing flue gas treatment devices, etc.


The safety and reliability of a combustion appliance are the measures of how well the appliance can operate without causing hazards or failures. The safety and reliability depend on factors such as design standards, quality control, installation practices, operation procedures, maintenance schedules, etc. The safety and reliability can be enhanced by following design standards, ensuring quality control, installing properly, operating correctly, maintaining regularly, etc.


Fuels and combustion in Indian context




India is a developing country with a large and growing population, a diverse and dynamic economy, and a huge demand for energy. India's energy consumption has increased by more than four times since 1980, and is expected to continue to grow in the future. India's energy mix is dominated by fossil fuels, especially coal, which accounts for about 55% of the total primary energy supply. India also imports about 80% of its oil and 50% of its natural gas needs, making it vulnerable to price fluctuations and supply disruptions. India faces several challenges and opportunities in the field of fuels and combustion, such as:


  • Improving the access and affordability of modern and clean energy for all, especially in rural areas where about 40% of households still rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating.



  • Enhancing the efficiency and sustainability of energy production and consumption, by adopting best practices, technologies, and policies for fuel processing, combustion appliances, emission control, etc.



  • Reducing the environmental and health impacts of energy use, by curbing the emissions of greenhouse gases, air pollutants, and other harmful substances from fuel combustion.



  • Diversifying and securing the energy sources, by exploring and exploiting the potential of renewable and alternative fuels such as solar, wind, hydro, biomass, biofuels, hydrogen, etc.



  • Developing and promoting the innovation and research in the field of fuels and combustion, by fostering collaboration among academia, industry, government, and civil society.



India has taken several initiatives and measures to address these challenges and opportunities in the field of fuels and combustion. Some of these are:


  • The National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE), which aims to save about 5% of India's annual energy consumption and avoid 100 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year by 2015 through various schemes such as Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT), Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE), Energy Efficiency Financing Platform (EEFP), etc.



  • The National Solar Mission (NSM), which aims to establish India as a global leader in solar energy by creating an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20 GW of solar power by 2022.



  • The National Biofuel Policy (NBP), which aims to promote the development and use of biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel from non-food feedstocks such as agricultural residues, municipal solid waste, etc.



Hydrogen production and storage in India




Hydrogen is a versatile and clean energy carrier that can be used for various applications such as power generation, transportation, industry, etc. Hydrogen can be produced from various sources such as water, fossil fuels, biomass, etc. using different methods such as electrolysis, steam reforming, gasification, pyrolysis, etc. Hydrogen can also be stored in various forms such as compressed gas, liquid, metal hydrides, chemical carriers, etc. using different technologies such as compression, liquefaction, adsorption, absorption, etc.


India has a huge potential for hydrogen production and storage, given its abundant resources of water, renewable energy, coal, biomass, etc. India also has a strong scientific and industrial base for developing and deploying hydrogen technologies. India has initiated several projects and programs to promote hydrogen research and development (R&D), demonstration and deployment (D&D), and policy and regulation (P&R) in the country.


Some of the major initiatives and achievements of India in the field of hydrogen production and storage are:


  • The National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap (NHER), which was launched in 2006 by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), with the vision of making India a global leader in hydrogen economy by 2020. The NHER identified four priority areas for hydrogen development: hydrogen production from renewable energy sources; hydrogen storage and distribution; hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HCNG) for transport applications; and hydrogen-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs) and fuel cells for stationary and mobile applications.



  • The National Hydrogen Mission (NHM), which was announced in 2021 by the Prime Minister of India, with t